This is for the “old” syllabus (exams in May and Nov 2018).
What is reflexivity?
- Reflexivity is the process of continual reflection upon the research process by a researcher; at the heart of reflexivity is the idea of self-awareness.
Students need to be able to “explain the use of reflexivity in qualitative research,” which means defining the term and explaining how and why it’s used in qualitative studies and using details from the stimulus in the exam paper to support the explanation. No limitations are needed.
How is reflexivity used in qualitative research?
- Researchers can practice reflexivity in their research in a number of ways, such as keeping a journal, maintaining open dialogue and discussion with their colleagues, or simply internally reflecting on the research process.
- Reflexivity can be divided into two types: prospective and retrospective. Prospective reflexivity refers to the effects of the researcher on the study, whereas retrospective reflexivity refers to the effects of the study on the researcher (Attia and Edge, 2016). Understanding the bidirectional relationship between researcher and research is an important concept in qualitative methodology.
Why is reflexivity used in qualitative research?
- One aim of prospective reflexivity is to ensure credibility of results by reducing the chances of the researcher biasing the study.
- Reflexivity can also help researchers become aware of how the values, opinions and experiences they’ve brought to the research can be a positive thing.
- Reflexivity is really important in qualitative research because there are so many ways in which researcher bias could affect the study, from the creation of data gathering tools, to collecting the data, analysing it and reporting it. This is because of the subjective nature of qualitative data and methodology. While bias can affect quantitative studies, it is easier to control for than in qualitative studies.
- Another aim of retrospective reflexivity is so the researcher becomes aware of how the research process has had an effect on them. Understanding these effects can be an important part of the research process. (See an example here). In many qualitative studies the researcher may be in closer contact with their subject of study, compared with quantitative studies, so the chance for impact of the research on the researcher is also greater.
Here are some ways you might be able to apply your understanding of reflexivity to the stimulus material in Paper 3:
- Explain how the researcher could have practiced reflexivity – e.g. if there is more than one researcher cited they could have regular discussions.
- Look for potential reasons for researcher bias. For example, developing a connection with subjects of a study could affect the ability to be objective (e.g. in a participant-observation).
- Also look for how the process of the research might have affected the researcher.